By T. Padmanabhan
The evolution of our Universe and the formation of stars and galaxies are mysteries that experience lengthy questioned scientists. contemporary years have introduced new medical realizing of those profound and primary matters. In full of life prose, Professor Padmanabhan paints an image of latest cosmology for the overall reader. in contrast to different well known books on cosmology, After the 1st 3 mins doesn't gloss over info, or draw back from explaining the underlying suggestions. in its place, with a lucid and casual kind, the writer introduces the entire proper history after which rigorously items jointly an attractive tale of the evolution of our Universe. Padmanabhan leaves the reader with a cutting-edge photo of scientists' present figuring out in cosmology and a willing flavor of the thrill of this fast-moving technological know-how. all through, no arithmetic is used and all technical jargon is obviously brought and strengthened in a convenient thesaurus on the finish of the ebook. For common readers who are looking to come to grips with what we actually do and do not find out about our Universe, this publication presents an exhilarating and uncompromising learn. Thanu Padmanabhan is a Professor at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. he's the recipient of diverse awards and writer of 3 books, constitution Formation within the Universe (Cambridge, 1994), Cosmology and Astrophysics via difficulties (Cambridge, 1996), and, including J.V. Narlikar, Gravity, Gauge Theories and Quantum Cosmology. he's additionally the writer of multiple hundred renowned technological know-how articles, a comic book strip serial and a number of other average columns on astronomy, leisure arithmetic, and the background of technology.
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Additional resources for After the First Three Minutes: The Story of Our Universe
If the energy of the photon is different, then it will not be absorbed by the hydrogen atom. spectrum. By studying an absorption spectrum we can determine the composition of elements in regions through which radiation has been passing. 6 eV. What happens if we shine photons with higher energy, say 15 eV, on the hydrogen atom? To answer this question we must remember that a free electron which is not moving has zero energy and a free electron moving with some speed has positive energy. 6 eV on a hydrogen atom, then the electron can absorb one such photon and reach the zero energy level.
A steady state will be reached when the rate of annihilation of electron- positron pairs is balanced by the rate of production of electron- positron pairs from high energy photons. In such a steady state we wiU have a certain number of high energy photons and a certain number of electron- positron pairs. 5 Interaction of matter and light The above discussion brings out one feature of high energy interactions which we did not cover in the previous sections. When we discussed the heating of a gas to high temperatures, we mentioned that the system will reach a plasma state made of charged particles like ions and electrons.
This is unlike the electromagnetic force, which only affects charged particles and cannot influence neutral particles. The attractive nature of the gravitational force is related to the fact that all particles have positive mass. This is unlike the situation as regards the electric charge, which can be positive or negative. Comparing the characteristics of the four forces, it is easy to understand why gravity should play the most important role in the case of the large masses encountered in astrophysics, even though it is the weakest of the four forces.
After the First Three Minutes: The Story of Our Universe by T. Padmanabhan