By Fred C. Pampel, John B. Williamson
This research of the expansion of welfare spending examines the relative influence of sophistication and standing teams as opposed to demographic composition and political buildings. specified cognizance is given to the position of the elderly as consultant of the significance of ascription and middle-class teams in welfare progress, and to the impression of welfare spending on source of revenue inequality. combination cross-national info from the UN, ILO, and the realm financial institution are analyzed and the realization is drawn that a huge elderly inhabitants, specially together with democratic political tactics, is an immediate and an important impression at the point of welfare spending.
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Additional info for Age, Class, Politics, and the Welfare State (American Sociological Association Rose Monographs)
Griffin's time-series studies of the United States (Griffin, Devine, and Wallace, 1983; Griffin and Leicht, 1986) show that measures of economic downturn, such as unemployment in competitive sector industries and industrial utilization, affect transfer payments net of government revenues, inflation, defense expenditures, and transfer payments lagged (see also Isaac and Kelly, 1981, Devine, 1983, 1985, for similar studies). Their model, however, explains short-term fluctuation in payments rather than longterm growth of, or cross-national differences in, the welfare state.
Fourth, an interest group politics theory claims that democratic political institutions combined with demographic and economic changes in group structures explain the growth of welfare spending. Unlike the functionalist views of the industrialism theory, it emphasizes the impact of political conflict and mobilization of interest groups in democracies. Unlike class theories, it recognizes the competition among a variety of ascriptive and economic groups that transcend and fragment the distinction between labor and capital.
The state and democratic political processes have the potential to influence the economy, according to the theory, but since spending goes to groups with the most political power, the influence is seldom in the direction of greater equality. This brief review fails to capture the complexities of the theories and provides only a preliminary overview of what is discussed in more detail in the next sections. However, it does illustrate several themes that run through the various theories. To some degree, each theory addresses common questions and offers a unique set of answers to the questions.
Age, Class, Politics, and the Welfare State (American Sociological Association Rose Monographs) by Fred C. Pampel, John B. Williamson