By A. Mark Smith
Someday among 1028 and 1038, Ibn al-Haytham accomplished his huge optical synthesis, Kitab al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"). by way of no later than 1200, and maybe a little previous, this treatise seemed in Latin lower than the identify De aspectibus. In that shape it was once attributed to a definite "Alhacen." those adjustments in identify and authorial designation are indicative of the profound variations among the 2 types, Arabic and Latin, of the treatise. in lots of methods, in truth, they are often looked now not easily as diverse models of a similar paintings, yet as diversified works of their personal correct. consequently, the Arab writer, Ibn al-Haytham, and his Latin incarnation, Alhacen, characterize exact, occasionally even conflicting, interpretive voices. And an identical holds for his or her respective texts. To complicate concerns, "Alhacen" doesn't signify a unmarried interpretive voice. there have been a minimum of translators at paintings at the Latin textual content, one among them adhering faithfully to the Arabic unique, the opposite content material with distilling, even paraphrasing, the Arabic unique. therefore, the Latin textual content provides no longer one, yet no less than faces to the reader. quantity This two-volume severe version represents fourteen years of labor on Dr. Smith's half. offered the 2001 J. F. Lewis Award. quantity Two--English Translation
Read Online or Download Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) PDF
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Extra resources for Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society)
But we do not find this to be the case. And the form of each light-sourceradiatesalong all the [straight]lines that can be extended from it throughthe air,and in accordwith this [the resultingforms of light] do not mingle in the air,nor is the air tinted by them; rather,they merely pass through its transparency,and the air does not therebybecome transformed. , the glacialis, does not receive the form of light and color in the same way as air and other insensitive transparentbodies, but in a differentway from that, for this organ is constituted for the [sensitive] reception of that form.
And the form [impressed]on the surfaceof the glacialis extends through the body of the glacialis, then through the subtle flux [of visual spirit]in the hollow of the [optic]nerve until it reaches the common nerve. Nevertheless,the viewer TRANSLATION:BOOKONE 377 will perceive the visible object as single, and the reason is that, when the two forms reachingthe two eyes from one visible objectreachthe common nerve, the two formsmeet and aresuperimposedupon one anotherto make a single form. 70]Thatthe two forms reachingboth eyes froma single visible object are united and made into a single form before the final sensor perceives it and that the final sensor perceives the form only after the two [original] forms are united is indicated by the fact that, when a viewer moves one of his eyes while the other remainsimmobile,and when the motion of the eye that is moved is in an upward direction,he will see a facing visible object doubled.
Thus, none of the refractedforms of visible objectsreachingthe surfaceof the glacialisrepresentsthe surfacesof the visible objectsas they actually are. But it has alreadybeen shown that forms arriving along perpendiculars are arranged on the surface of the glacialis according to reality,because they extend orthogonally from the surfacesof visible objectsto the surfaceof the glacialis. Exceptfor the forms extending along perpendicularlines, then, none of the forms of visible objects that reach the surfaceof the glacialis is arrangedon the surfaceof the glacialis accordingto its actual arrangementon the surfaces of visible objects.
Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) by A. Mark Smith