By Robert Crispin Evans
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Extra resources for An introduction to crystal chemistry
8A. Irradiation of the crystal sample leads to radiation damage. The mosaicity increases, which is a manifestation of the disruption of the intermolecular contacts which hold the crystal together. g. fusion of side chains, disruption of the protein molecule. These effects have been found to be reduced with the SR beam in the following ways. Use of short wavelengths decreases the absorption of the beam and leads to less damage. Also, faster exposure times mean that the diffraction data can be collected before the radiation damage takes effect.
E. g. naturally occurring amino acids are all left-handed. This restricts the number of crystal space group types (that macromolecules can crystallise in) to 65 and which contain, as symmetry elements, rotation or screw rotation axes. e. the centrosymmetric ones. 3). 4). (k=2n) x,y,z ; x,y,z. No. z; x,y,z; x,y,1/2+z; x,y,1/2-z. 7%) are shown. The nomenclature of this figure is based on International Tables for Crystallography (for P2} and P212121 from Volume A (1987) and for C2 and C222! from Volume 1 (1959), to illustrate the newer and older types of nomenclature in these tables of space groups).
12) Phase determination 41 where dg/dco is the oscillator density for oscillators of any given type and the summation is over all possible absorption edges. 15) and /u is the absorption coefficient of the element. If only one isomorphous heavy atom derivative can be prepared then the anomalous scattering signal of the heavy atom can be used to resolve the phase ambiguity. At a wavelength somewhat removed from an absorption edge this signal is small, though significant. 13(5)). This approach is known as single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS).
An introduction to crystal chemistry by Robert Crispin Evans