By Michel Ghertman, Margaret Allen (auth.)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Multinationals
Nevertheless, there is still a huge market, shared primarily by Europe (13 420 000 cars in 1979), the United States and Canada (9 322 000) and Japan (6 176 000). 31 The history of the internationalization of the automobile industry shows clearly that some of the changes in strategy were not made by the multinationals alone. In their relations with governments they are extremely influential and certainly had a great deal of weight in the reinforcement of the protectionist reactions of their respective countries.
This is what is done systematically by all those who compare the GNP of a country with the turnover of a company. To return to the example of the world position of Exxon and the economic importance of Mexico, the economic agents of the latter - including the local subsidiaries of the multinationals- produce within its border a value added (which is a contribution to the GOP) probably more than three times larger than that of Exxon at the worldwide level. The only precise way to estimate the weight of an economic agent within the economy of a country is to know the total value added ofthis agent.
Moreover, the American and Swiss banks prefer to deal in industrial financing, whereas German and Japanese banks undertake direct loans or refinancings which are riskier. * * * This brief analysis of nearly a century of history of the multinationals shows that we are not talking about the evolution of a continuous phenomenon where growth is natural and inevitable. Their development, however, was by no means uniform- the two World Wars and the oil shock of 1973 were important breaks. 36 The phenomenon first spread between Europe and the United States; today the multinational firms are beginning to multiply in rapidly industrializing countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina or India and, to a lesser extent, the Eastern European countries.
An Introduction to the Multinationals by Michel Ghertman, Margaret Allen (auth.)